Acid, Base, and Salt Test Study Guide
1. Q: List the five characteristics of acids.
2. Q: What is an indicator?
A: An indicator is a substance that changes color in the presence of certain ions.
3. Q: What is a hedonism ion? Give two ways that this can be written.
4. Q: Define: acid
A: And acid is a substance that gives hydrogen ions to water to form hydronium ions.
5. Q: Give the formula for the following acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric, carbonic, and boric.
A: sulfuric- H2SO4 ;hydrochloric- HCl; nitric- HNO3 ;carbonic- H2CO3 ;boric- H3BO3
6. Q: What is the first element in the formula of an acid?
7. Q: What is a strong acid?
A: A strong acid is an acid that produces a large number of H+ ions in water.
8. Q: What is a weak acid?
A: A weak acid is an acid that is slightly ionized and supplies a few hydrogen ions.
9. Q: What does corrosive mean? What gas is given off during corrosion?
A: Corrosive means the substance attacks metals. Hydrogen is given off.
10. Q: Write the equation for the reaction of iron with sulfuric acid. What kind of reaction is this?
A: Fe + H2SO4 ® FeSO4 + H2
11. Q: What three conditions must be met when writing a chemical equation?
A: 1. Must represent what is observed in the lab
2. The formulas or symbols must be written correctly
3. The equation must be balanced
12. Q: What are two things that a chemical reaction does not tell?
A: 1. The rate (speed) at which the reaction takes place
2. The conditions under which the reaction takes place
13. Q: What does the use of sulfuric acid tell about a nation?
A: The use of sulfuric acid in a nation tells of the size of its industry.
14. Q: What is one of the major uses of sulfuric acid?
A: to make fertilizers
15. Q: Why is calcium phosphate treated with sulfuric acid?
A: Sulfuric acid dissolves the calcium phosphate easily and releases phosphates that are needed for plants to grow.
16. Q: Why are metals “pickled” in sulfuric acid?
A: Metals are pickled in sulfuric acid to remove any oxide (rust) coating before they are plated or enameled.
17. Q: What happens when sulfuric acid is put on table sugar?
A: Sulfuric acid removes hydrogen and oxygen from table sugar.
18. Q: What is a drying agent?
A: A drying agent is a substance that removes water from other substances.
19. Q: What is the correct procedure for diluting acid with water?
A: To dilute an acid, slowly add the acid to water while stirring.
20. Q: Write the equation for making hydrochloric acid. What kind of reaction is this?
A: 2NaCl + H2SO4 ® Na2SO4 + 2HCl (double replacement reaction)
21. Q: What is galvanized metal?
A: Galvanized metal is a coated metal.
22. Q: What is most nitric acid used for in the United States?
A: Nitric acid is used for fertilizers in the United States.
23. Q: What happens when you get nitric acid on your skin? This is a test for detecting the presence of what category?
A: Nitric acid turns skin yellow, and is used for detecting proteins.
24. Q: List the characteristics of bases.
A: Bases neutralize the properties of acids, and for hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
25. Q: What does caustic mean?
A: Caustic means attacking skin and other animal tissues.
26. Q: Define: base.
A: Any soluble substance that can neutralize the properties of an acid is a base. Bases form hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
27. Q: How do you name a base?
A: The metal ion is named first followed by the word hydroxide.
28. Q: Give the formula for the following bases: sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonia water, calcium hydroxide.
A: Potassium hydroxide- KOH ;ammonia water- NH4OH ;calcium hydroxide- Ca(OH)2 ; sodium hydroxide- NaOH
29. Q: What makes a base “strong”?
A: Many OH- ions make a base strong.
30. Q: What does “alkali” mean?
A: Alkali is used in reference to strong bases.
31. Q: Write the equation for the formation of sodium hydroxide.
A: 2NaCl + 2H2O ® 2NaOH + H2 + Cl2
32. Q: What is lye? List five commercial uses of sodium hydroxide.
A: Lye is another name for sodium hydroxide, which is used for cleaning plumbing drains, making rayon and cellophane, and refining gasoline and other petroleum products.
33. Q: What is the formula for ammonia? Write the equation to show what happens when ammonia is mixed with water?
A: ammonia- NH3 ; NH3 + HOH « NH4 + OH
34. Q: What does the double arrow mean?
A: The double arrow shows a reversible reaction. Reactants form products, and the products return to the reactant forms.
35. Q: What kind of bond is present in ammonia solution?
36. Q: What is ammonia water used for?
A: Ammonia water is used as a common lab base, and to remove grease and dirt.
37. Q: What is the raw material used in making calcium hydroxide? Write the equation for making calcium hydroxide. What kind of equation is this?
A: limestone; CaCO3 ®heat CaO + CO2 ;decomposition
38. Q: What is line? Why is it called “quicklime”?
A: Lime is calcium oxide, also called quicklime for how it reacts with water.
39. Q: What are commercial uses of calcium hydroxide?
A: Calcium hydroxide is used to make mortar and plaster. It is also used to soften hot water, detect CO2, and remove hair from hides to make leather.
40. Q: What does the pH tell you?
A: pH tells how acidic or basic a solution is.
41. Q: What is the range of the pH scale? What is the pH of pure water?
A: The range of the pH scale is 0 through 14; pure water has a pH of 7
42. Q: What is the classification of a solution with a pH of less than 7? More than 7?
A: Less than 7- acid; more than 7- basic
43. Q: Give the pH of the following solutions: lemon juice, vinegar, milk, sea water, human blood.
A: lemon juice- 2.3; vinegar- 2.8; milk- 6.5; sea water- 8.5; human blood- 7.4
-44. Q: What happens when an acid and base are mixed together in proper proportions? Write the word equation for this reaction.
A: acid + base ® salt + water
45. Q: Write the equation for the reaction of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
A: HCl + NaOH ® NaCL +HOH
46. Q: Define: salt
A: A salt is a compound made up of the positive ions of a base and the negative ions of an acid.
47. Q: What are spectator ions?
A: Spectator ions are ions that take no part in a reaction.
48. Q: What is a neutralization reaction?
A: A neutralization reaction is when two ionized reactants form a no ionized product.
49. Q: What kind of bonds are found in salts?
50. Q: Where is common table salt found?
A: Common table salt is found all over the world, mainly in sea water. Most is retrieved from wells.
51. Q: What causes table salt to get sticky?
A: Very small amounts of other salts in table salt cause it to be sticky. The moisture they pick up from the air make the sodium chloride sticky so it will not pour easily.
52. Q: Where did the expression “worth his/her salt” come from?
A: Many nations have used salt as currency. This is where the word “salary” comes from too.
53. Q: Why is iodized salt useful for some people?
A: Iodized salt protects people from a disease called goiter, which is an enlargement of the thyroid gland found in the neck. This is caused by a shortage of iodine in the diet.
54. Q: List the useful products made using sodium chloride.
A: lye, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, washing soda, and making soda
55. Q: What was salt used for before refrigeration?
A: Salt was used to prevent food decay before refrigeration.
56. Q: Who was Svaante Arrhenius and what did he contribute to the “world of chemistry”?
A: Svaante Arrhenius received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in the year 1903 for his ion theory, on how ions are formed. He theorized that they are formed by breaking apart molecules of certain substances in water solutions. He thought the ions were electrical in nature. When the molecules were ionized, they formed equal numbers of positive and negative charges, which made the solution a good conductor of electric currents. Arrhenius believed that the breakdown of molecules into ions was complete in dilute solutions.